While most historical studies of the Brethren make some reference to the beliefs of the adherents of this movement, this is the first study devoted exclusively to an analysis of the beliefs of the founding members in the period roughly from 1706 to 1735. The author shows how the Brethren reflected not only the major Protestant beliefs, but also some of the specific emphases of the Pietists, the Separatists, and the Anabaptists. Another significant contribution is Willoughby's evaluation of these early Brethren beliefs "which evolved in a significantly different age and culture from ours." He identifies several areas in the early Brethren belief system that might be challenged from a contemporary perspective. He also considers several unique Brethren ideas as "beliefs of enduring value."